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Instructor and students in classroom
FROG classroom; photo by University of Hawaii

Retaining a Healthy Indoor Environment in On-Demand Mixed-Mode Classrooms

A study to measure energy performance and CO2 concentrations was conducted in two Hawai‘i classrooms to determine the impact of user decision-making on adequacy of fresh air. Using CO2 as a marker for indoor air quality and fresh air exchange, significantly different CO2 concentrations were observed in the two identical classrooms. In the Hawai‘i mixed-mode classrooms, ventilation and CO2 levels were dependent upon: user awareness of how fresh air was introduced; user training; availability of operable windows; and outside fresh air supply from the air-conditioning unit.

This research has been a collaboration between The University of Hawai’i’s: Hawai’i Natural Energy Institute’s energy efficiency program, School of Architecture’s Environmental Research and Design Lab and  Sea Grant College Program.

The paper is accessible for free online: