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Manual for the Production of the Banggai Cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, in Hawai‘i

The Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, is extremely attractive in appearance, very hardy in captivity, and exhibits an unusual mode of reproduction in that the males incubate their female partner’s eggs in their mouth.They make outstanding tank companions with all fish, coral and other marine ornamentals. For these reasons, they have become very popular in the marine ornamental trade. The remarkable rise in popularity of this species since 1995 has begun to raise concerns amongst the various stakeholders in the aquarium industry as currently between 50,000 and 118,000 individuals per month are collected from the wild and make their way to overseas markets. What is cause for concern is that this species is endemic to the Banggai Archipelago in Indonesia with a geographic range which is estimated to be less than 10,000 km2.

Available Formats

PDF icon Banggai cardinalfish manual (3.78 MB)
Publication Date
January 2004